Theory X- Also known as “Basement Thinking” TheoryThe two most prominent management theories are Theory X and Theory Y. In an earlier post we looked at the lesser-known Theory Z. Douglas McGregor coined the two phrases in the 1950’s. McGregor was a psychologist who taught at MIT and served as President of Antioch College. McGregor drew his motivational theories from the work of Abraham Maslow and was intent on proving that Theory X assumptions led to ineffective management as well as lower productivity of workers.
Theory X Principles:
- People inherently dislike their jobs
- People are naturally lazy
- Work is a necessary evil
- Most people are not ambitious, have little desire for responsibility, and prefer to be directed
- Employees must be externally controlled by coercion, direction, or threats of punishment
- People have little capacity of creativity in solving organizational problems
- Most people are self-centered
- People have a natural resistance to change
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